Thursday, October 27, 2011

Different types of air purifiers.

There are 3 main types of air purifiers: Electronic air cleaners, dehumidifiers, and ultra violet germicidal lights.

Electronic Air Cleaners - Most use electricity to make the particles in the air be negatively or positively charged. Than another part of it is the magnet which will grab the particle that was just charged. These usually do a great job of cleaning the air but they have to be maintained very well to keep up the effectness.

Dehumidifiers - This controls the humidity in your house. If you have high humidity in your home, it causes things to grow on the particles that you breathe. If you run an air conditioner and a dehumidifier at the same time, the dehumidifers will keep the inside of the air conditioner dry which prevents things from growing inside.

Ultra Violet Germicidal Lights - These are supposed to use a light that kills stuff in the air but there are mixed reviews on these. But the air is moving too fast for the light to do anything.

Why are tattoos permanent.

Tattoo Ink Placement

The tattooing process causes damage to the epidermis, epidermal-dermal junction, and the papillary layer (topmost layer) of the dermis. These layers appear homogenized (or in other words, like mush) right after the tattooing process. The ink itself is initially dispersed as fine granules in the upper dermis, but aggregate into more concentrated areas at 7-13 days.

Like any injury, the initial response is to stop bleeding, followed by tissue swelling, and the migration of non-resident immune cells into the area. The "automatic response" immune cells are mostly neutrophils, and macrophages later on. They are phagocytic cells that "swallow" debris to clean up the area and then leave via the lymphatics. This is the extent of an immune response unless an allergic reaction occurs or an infection sets in. The tissue is then repaired and/or regenerated by fibroblasts. Initially the tissue formed is known as granulation tissue (think fresh scar, pinkish and soft), which later matures into fibrous tissue (think old scar).

Stages of Ink Dispersal

Initially ink is taken up by keratinocytes, and phagocytic cells (including fibroblasts, macrophages and mast cells).

At one month the basement membrane of the epidermis (epidermal-dermal junction) is reforming and the basal cells contain ink. In the dermis, ink containing phagocytic cells are concentrated along the epidermal-dermal junction below a layer of granulation tissue that is surrounded by collagen. Ink is still being eliminated through the epidermis with ink present in keratinocytes, macrophages and fibroblasts.

At two to three months the basement membrane of the epidermis is fully reformed, preventing any further loss of ink through the epidermis. Ink is now present in dermal fibroblasts. Most of these ink containing fibroblasts are located beneath a layer of fibrous tissue which has replaced the granulation tissue. A network of connective tissue surrounds and effectively traps these fibroblasts. It is assumed that these fibroblasts are the cells that give tattoos their lifespan.

Then why does the tattoo fade over time?

It is debated whether all the ink particles are in fibroblasts, or if some remain as extracellular aggregations of ink. Also, the lifespan of the ink containing fibroblasts is not known. Presumably, ink particles are moved into the deeper dermis over time due to the action of mobile phagocytic cells (think immune cells), causing the tattoo to look bluish, faded and blurry. Examination of older tattoos (e.g. 40 years) show that the ink is in the deep dermis, and also found in local lymph nodes. Since some types of phagocytic immune cells migrate to lymph nodes to "present their goods", the discovery of ink in lymph nodes is consistent with the theory of phagocytic cells being the cause of ink movement.


Friday, October 21, 2011

Why Gaddafi was killed.

Gaddafi was the ruler of Libya. The people didn't vote him to be leader, he took over by intimidation. When he was the leader, he was very very mean to anyone who didn't want him to be the ruler. He even killed people who weren't on his side, like protesters! Also, as the ruler of Libya, Gaddafi was in control of the oil exported from the country and he made a lot of money selling it. However, he didn't share this large wealth with the people of Libya, even though many of them were very poor. All of these things made people very angry, and they wanted to make him pay for killing the protesters and keeping all the oil money for himself and his family, so they became violent and killed him.

Thursday, October 20, 2011

What happens when a country defaults on its debt.

Say you have a little country of your own, off on an island someplace. You and a few hundred friends, let's say it is. You have a government — monarchy, republic, whatever; doesn't matter. That government has a treasury, but the treasury has no money in it. Which is fine … so long as you don't actually want your government to do anything. If you just want to be able to say you have a government, knock yourself out; nobody can stop you. But as soon as you want that government to do stuff — like hiring police officers, or raising an army — you need money in your treasury.

The way this works is simple: Your treasury issues bonds. A bond is sort of like a very ritualized type of loan. You sell bonds with the promise to, after a set amount of time, buy them back for more than what you sold them for. So say you could sell a bond for $100, with the promise to buy it back in a year for $110. The difference between how much you promise to buy the bond back for and how much it sells for, expressed as a percentage, is called the interest, and the date on which you promise to buy it back is called the maturity.
Who buys bonds? Who cares? Literally anybody with money can buy these bonds. Maybe those are private citizens in your country, maybe it's your central bank (that's how you create money in your economy in the first place), or maybe it's private citizens or other concerns in other countries. Point is, you offer the bonds for sale, and people agree to buy them. Thus do you get money in your treasury.

Of course, people will only agree to buy your treasury's bonds if they think there's a good chance your treasury will buy them back when it promises to. If there's reason to doubt your treasury's willingness or ability to buy the bonds back, the people who have the money to buy them will demand a higher rate of interest to justify the higher risk.
If there's a lot of reason to doubt your treasury's willingness or ability to pay, potential bond buyers might demand an impossibly high interest rate, making it effectively impossible for you to sell bonds, which in turn means it's effectively impossible for you to fund your government's activities.

When one of those government activities you can no longer fund is redeeming previously issued bonds, you've got yourself a sovereign debt crisis. And when a debt crisis gets really bad, you've got yourself a sovereign default situation.

So your question is what happens in a sovereign default situation? Well, most of the time the answer is that doesn't come up, because people, on the whole, aren't complete idiots. You can see a sovereign default situation coming from a mile away. When confidence in your bonds drops, and the demand price rises as a result, it's clear that you're going to have a problem in the future if you don't take measures to prevent it. So people, as a rule, tend to have plenty of chances to see these things coming and avert them.

But sometimes that doesn't happen. (In the case of Greece, it didn't play out that way because there was a big disconnect between the perceived value of Greek sovereign bonds and their actual value, due to what we could charitably call reporting irregularities. When that disconnect was resolved, the market value of Greek sovereign bonds dropped like a rock practically overnight.) In those cases — where a sovereign default situation occurs anyway — one of two things can happen.

Most of the time, you end up with what's called a controlled default. This includes two parts: a restructuring of the sovereign debt, and a guarantor.
In the broadest terms, sovereign debt restructuring just means rearranging things to reduce the debt burden on the treasury in question. That might mean getting holders of bonds to agree to new terms of repayment, or it might mean somebody buying up a bunch of bonds on the open market and then destroying them, whatever. It's usually very complicated, but the general principle is that the country's sovereign debt obligation is changed to reduce the scope of the problem and increase the chance that the holders of those bonds will get at least some return on their investment.

A guarantor, on the other hand, is some body that injects capital into the treasury to cover bond repayments. In the modern era, that's usually the International Monetary Fund, or IMF. The IMF functions much like an insurance underwriter: Countries pay into the fund as they can, and in return receive the right to draw on the fund if needed. In a sovereign default situation, the IMF will extend loans to the troubled treasury — usually loans with lots of very short strings attached — to guarantee the treasury retains the ability to redeem its outstanding bonds as it recovers from its debt crisis. Having a guarantor is good, because it raises market confidence in your ability and willingness to buy back new bonds, meaning you can get money flowing through your treasury again, which is how you climb out of a debt crisis.

But remember I said that only happens — the thing with the restructuring and the guarantor — most of the time. It's also entirely possible for a government to just say "screw it, we ain't payin'." When that happens — and it's worth remembering that in the modern era it's exceedingly rare — the people who hold those bonds just take it in the shorts. The bonds become absolutely, literally worthless; you're better off burning them to heat your house than you are holding on to them in the hope of future repayment.

Of course, the failure of a government to buy back its bonds doesn't just render those bonds worthless. It renders all future bonds issued by the same treasury worthless. Because once a government exercises its power — and it is a power; nobody can stop it from happening — to nullify its bonds, what's to stop it from using that power again the next time a series of bonds matures? Nothing, is the answer. So once a government has demonstrated its willingness to say "screw you" to investors, faith in that government is ruined forever. Meaning that government can no longer fund its operations, meaning it can no longer do anything, meaning it no longer has any reason to exist, as far as its people are concerned. That's how you end up with things like the fall of the Weimar Republic … which is precisely why today we have this vast infrastructure in place to keep things from getting to that point.

Monday, October 17, 2011

How a silencer works.

When a gun fires a bullet, the bullet breaks the sound barrier and creates a sonic boom sound. A gun that fires a bullet which breaks the sound barrier is impossible to suppress without slowing down the bullet.

The way a gun fires a bullet is by creating enough pressure behind the bullet to push it out of the barrel. There are very hot gasses which expand very quickly. A suppressor (also known as a silencer) slows the expansion of the gas outside of the barrel. If you were to disassemble a suppressor, you would see it is basically a tube with small holes that feed into another chamber. By giving the gasses a slightly larger area to expand in, it allows the gas to expand and cool at a slower rate.

Friday, October 14, 2011

Photography terms.

Imagine a dark room with a window covered with blinds, the blinds are like a shutter, it opens up to let light in.

Shutter speed is how long the blinds stay open for. The longer the blinds stay open, the more light gets into the room. One of the reasons a picture can turn out blurry is if a person moves while the blinds are still open.

One of the things that determines how much light reaches the sensor in your camera is called aperture. The aperture is like the window. The bigger the window, the larger the aperture, which means more light gets in. More light means you can see the room better. The size of the aperture is measured in f-stops. The smaller the f-stop, the larger the aperture.

The ISO value is how a flim reacts to light shining on it. Some film is very sensitive to light and some are not.

Smaller aperture makes more of the picture stay in focus. If you want to take pictures of things moving fast(sports photographers) then you want quick shutter speed. Quick shutter speeds require smaller f-stops(larger aperture) to let more light in. If the aperture is not large enough and the shutter speed is too fast, the picture would be dark because it did not let enough light in to capture the picture.


Computer parts and what they do.

A computer has many parts and each part has its own job. Lets pretend that a computer is a person.

CPU: The CPU is like the brain. It does all the thinking and makes everything work. The CPU controls all the other parts in the computer. Just like your brain controls your body.

Motherboard: The motherboard is like the skin and skeleton of the computer. It holds every part together and makes sure each part can work with one another.

RAM: RAM is like the hands of the human body. If a person has more hands, they can do more things at once and multitask more efficiently. If someone has a job that requires two hands but they only have one hand, it will slow them down. But if a job requires one hand and the person has four hands, then it is pointless to have a lot of hands. Every program on your computer takes up RAM. More RAM = more programs can run at the same time more efficiently. RAM is measured in GB, and it is usually from 1GB to 8GB.

Power Supply: The power supply is like the heart. Just like the heart has to pump blood throughout the body, the power supply has to make sure there is enough power for all the parts in the computer or it will not work. Power supplies are measured in watts and are usually anywhere between 300W all the way up to 800W+.

Hard Drive: A hard drive is like a huge backpack that is being worn at all times. It is where everything is stored. Pictures, movies, documents, are all stored in this backpack. The bigger the backpack, the more it could hold. Sometimes the backpack gets very messy because there is so much stuff in it so you would want to "defragment" it. What this does is it organizes everything in the backpack so it is easier to find stuff later. Hard drives are measured in GB and TB. 1000GB = 1TB.

Video Card: A video card is like the eyes of a person with very bad eyesight. It lets you see everything that is happening but it needs eyeglasses(monitor) to show you. Without the video card, you can't see what you're doing. The video card requires a lot of power and when playing video games and it can get very hot.

Monitor: The monitor is like eyeglasses. It lets you see everything that is happening. Without it, you can't see anything. The monitor is connected to the video card.

Network: The network is the persons phone, it can be a wired house phone or a wireless cell phone. It is how the person communicates to other people. How fast the person can talk to others depends on how fast the internet is.

Thursday, October 13, 2011

Why people are protesting on Wall Street.

One of the reasons people are mad at the banks is something called "mortgage crisis".

People in the past used to buy houses because it was a very safe investment. Banks would allow people to borrow money from them because it was very safe and It was very rare that someone would not pay the bank back. The banks would charge a low interest rate because it made a lot of money, but the loan would be for up to 30 years.

Then, someone started selling mortgages. Lets pretend that you have $5 and I don't have any money but I want to buy lunch. I borrow the $5 from you and promise that for everyday that I don't pay you back, I will owe you an additional $2. You know I won't pay you back for two days, so you know you will get an additional $4 from me. Instead of waiting for me to pay you back, you tell Mike that I owe you $5. So you tell Mike that if he gives you $7, then you would sell him my debt. So Mike agrees and gives you $7. Now I owe Mike $9 after two days. So you make $2, Mike makes $2, and I get lunch.

You are making a lot of money doing this, so you do this a lot. You let people borrow money off you and sell their debts to other people. People are paying off their debts so everyone is making money except for the people paying, but they get a house.

This is making you so much money that you start letting people with no jobs or source of income borrow money too. These people have no chance of paying you back because they have no job. So the people you sell this persons debt to will not be getting paid because the person that owes them money has no job.

The banks let people borrow money who had no way of paying them back, then went on Wall Street and started selling these mortgages for a lot of money claiming that they were "safe". People couldn't pay their mortgages so they lost their houses and the people who bought the mortgages lost their money, but the banks still made money.

Basically, the people who took mortgages out shouldn't have taken out mortgages they couldn't pay back and the people who bought the mortgages should have done better research on what they were buying. You could blame anyone but the banks are the ones who didn't lose much and got bailed out.


Wednesday, October 12, 2011

How a microwave heats up food.

If you want to heat up food, there are three ways to do it.

Conductive Heat: When you heat up a pan on a stove and then put a piece of chicken on it. The part of the chicken that touches the pan gets very hot very quickly.

Convective Heat: When you heat up an oven and put a turkey inside. The hot air in the oven heats up the turkey.

Radiative Heat: Leaving a glass of cold water in the sun for a long time and when you come back later, it is very warm. The sunlight is shining through the glass and causing the water to heat up.

Cooking in a microwave is similar to radiative heat. But instead of the sun, there are artificial micro "waves". The waves in the microwave are more powerful than the sunlight so when it goes through the food, it bumps into big molecules, mostly water molecules, and heats them up.

Tuesday, October 11, 2011

What is Existentialism.

Remember when you were young and you kept on asking "Why?" whenever your parents gave you an answer. A philosopher will act the same way. People say that it's important to get good grades in school but a philosopher will ask "Why?". Then we say it's because it helps you get a good job in the future but the philosopher will still ask "Why?". Your philosophy depends on what you think the last answer is, the last answer is an answer that is not possible to ask "Why?" any more.

If you keep asking "Why?", there is never going to be a final answer. There is nothing that says getting good grades is important so you don't believe it's true. This is Nihilism.

If the last answer is because "God says so", then you're a "Divine Command" theorist. These people think that god decided getting good grades is important.

Existentialist believe that you choose your destiny and you get to choose what is right and wrong. The answer to "Why?" is "because you said so", not god or anybody else. In nihilism, there is no final answer but in existentialism, there is a final answer. The final answer is up to you.

In Existentialism, different things can be important to different people. Getting good grades can be important to one person, but can also be unimportant to another. They might disagree with each other but both are correct because they say so.

Existentialism means that it is up to you to decide what is important. Not god or anybody else.

Rules of cricket.

Cricket is very similar to baseball. Someone throws a ball and someone else tries to hit it with a bat.

There is a bowler and a batsman. The bowler is the pitcher and the batsman is the hitter. The bowler will throw the ball to the batsman. The batsman has to hit the ball and prevent the ball from hitting the wickets behind him.

The batsman has to hit the ball to give him enough time to run back and forth on the pitch. Each run gives his team 1 point. There are no "home runs" in cricket.

The bowler has to take the batsman out. There are many ways a batsman can be out:

  • The batsman hits the ball but one of the fielders catches the ball before it hits the ground.
  • The bowler throws the ball hard enough at the wickets to make the pieces of wood on top fall off.
  • When the batsman hits the ball and is in the middle of his run, a fielder throws the ball and hits the wickets.
  • If the batsman accidentally hits the wickets behind him, he is out.
  • The batsman gets hit anywhere on the body by the ball.

In baseball, there are 3 outs but in cricket, a team can keep batting until all the players are out. Then the batting team and the bowling team switch sides. The team with the highest score wins.

Comparing baseball to cricket:

1. Playing Field: In cricket the playing field is a narrow strip, much like a bowling lane. In baseball, the field is a diamond playing area.

2. Scoring: In baseball, a player can only score 1 point, then has to let another player hit. But in cricket, the player can run back and forth and keep scoring. When the ball is recovered and the batter isn't out, the same batter gets to keep hitting and scoring until they're out.

3. Outs: In baseball, to take a player out, you have to make the player miss the ball 3 times, catching him between bases, or by catching the ball without it hitting the ground. In cricket, the bowler has to hit a wicket behind the batter hard enough to make a piece of wood fall off, or a fielder has to hit the wicket. When a bowler hits the batter in the body with the ball, the batter is declared out. In baseball, this will give the batter a free base.

4. Length of Game: In baseball, after 3 players are out, the teams swap and this makes one "inning". The teams swap up to 9 innings, which can make the game very long. But in cricket, the teams swap once and only after all the players are out, which can make a game last for days.

If you want to play cricket, this book can help you learn the secrets of cricket. Click Here!

How a turbo in a car works.

If you want your car to be faster, you need to get as much air as possible into the engine.

When you put a turbo into your car, the turbo uses the exhaust gas that is coming out of the engine to spin a little wheel that pushes a lot of air into your engine, a lot more air than if the engine didn't have a turbo.

A turbo is basically 2 fans connected by an axle. When the exhaust gas hits the exhaust fan, it spins very quickly. The exhaust fan and intake fan are connected so when the exhaust fan spins, it makes the intake fan spin too and create more pressure. This is called a boost.

When there is more air, more fuel can be burned to power the car which means more power and torque.

Difference between Nihilism and Existentialism.

Nihilism: Do whatever you want because nothing matters.

Nihilist believe there is no "meaning" in life because there is no objective truth in the world.

Existentialism: Do whatever you want because it matters to you.

Existentialists know that there is no objective truth in world, so instead of saying there is no purpose, they make their own purposes to do whatever they want.

Basically, existentialism are concerned about finding a meaning while Nhilism denies that there is no meaning.

Sunday, October 9, 2011

Why you can't starve yourself to lose weight.

You can't lose weight by just starving yourself until you're skinny because your body has a starvation response.

When your body constantly digests food, it supplies your brain with glucose. Your body is made to be digesting food almost all the time.

If you're digestive system is not making glucose because you haven't eatan in a long time, your body will break down something called glycogen. Glycogen is stored in your liver and your muscles and it can be broken down in your liver to make glucose for your brain.

Your endocrine system will start releasing a lot of different hormones that gets picked up by your liver and your digestive system when your liver is breaking down glycogen. When this happens, you will feel a lot of pain and feel unpleasant. You will get headaches and a huge urge to eat.

You can ignore this pain though, it will not leave you writhing in agony. It just makes you want to eat. If you don't eat, your body will start the starvation response.

After not eating for 1.5 days to 3 days, your body will have no more glucose in your digestive system or liver. Your body will now starting metabolizing fatty acids, and your brain will start metabolizing ketone bodies. Fatty acids and ketone bodies is not as good as glucose for energy so your metabolism will slow down because there is less energy. Your body will soon starting digesting your fat but this happens VERY slowly.

To stay alive, your body needs at least a little glucose but your body is running off mostly fatty acids and ketone bodies. Normally, you need about 200g of glucose a day to live. It drops to 30g a day when your body starts the starvation response. To get that little bit of glucose your body will start metabolizing proteins. Proteins are amino acids and it can make glucose out of it in your liver.  So your body will begin eating its own core structures.

Your body has to make at least 10g of glucose a day from protein. To make 1g of glucose in your liver, your body has to break down 3g of protein. So that means you lose about 30g of protein a day and it mostly comes from your muscles.

Yes you can lose weight by starving yourself, but it's the slowest and most painful way to do it. Your body will break down and digest your own muscles, which will hurt a lot. And it takes a long time so you have to endure that pain for a long time.

If you want to lose weight easily, this program will help you do it.

Difference between the US army, navy, and air force.

In the USA, there are 3 main military forces. The army, the navy, and the air force. The army fights mostly on land. The navy fights on water. And the air force fights in the air.

These 3 main military forces are divided into several parts. One of these parts is the infantry. The infantrys role is to fight the enemy. The army and the navy both have infantries. The army infantry is called the infantry. In the navy, it is called the naval infantry or the marines.

At first, the marines role was to provide security on ships, to board other ships, and to repel boarding. Sometimes the marines would help with land raids. But now they are doing more water missions.

The US Marines Corps is a very large infantry. The US has used the marines for things other than a landing force for a naval invasion, but an expeditionary force, going in before other forces, even in places far from the sea.

Why the US has military in Germany and Japan.

After WWII, the US set up bases in Germany. They kept them as strategic points for all europe based actions such as NATO missions. These bases are perfect for transporting troops or supplies to or from Iraq because Germany is right in the middle of Europe.

The reason the US has military in Japan is because after WWII, it was decided that Japan was not allowed to have a military at all. So the US military is Japan's defense since the end of WWII and it is still today.

Credit unions vs banks.

When banks make a profit, the profits go to their shareholders.

When credit unions make a profit, the profits are distributed back to their customers. Credit unions are run by the community, for the community.

There are advantages to both banks and credit unions. Major banks have a lot of ATMs so you have more access to take out money. Credit unions don't have that accessibility but when credit unions make a profit, that money is invested back to your community. Credit unions have high incentives for checking accounts.

Credit unions are a non-profit organization. So they don't benefit from the people who use credit unions. Most credit unions are ran by people who put money into it, like you.

Saturday, October 8, 2011

Why cancer is not curable.


Why the letters on your keyboard are not in alphabetical order.

Every computer with a keyboard has the same alphabetical arrangement.

A long time a go a guy named Sholes designed the typewriter. He arranged the keys in alphabetical order like this:

- 3 5 7 9 N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
 2 4 6 8 . A B C D E F G H I J K L M

This was back in the old age when technology was non-existent so the typewriter had a lot of problems. When you pressed two keys that are beside each other quickly, it would jam.

Using trial and error, Sholes arranged the letters so that all the letters that were used the most were far apart from each other. So when you type, you don't usually press the keys that are right beside each other. That gave the lowest chance of jamming.

This is the design that Sholes' used when he tried selling his typewriter design in 1873 to Remington and Sons.

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 - ,
Q W E . T Y I U O P
A X & C V B N ? ; R

Remington and Sons switched the place of the letter "R" and the period. This gave a higher chance of jamming but the rumour is that they did this because it allowed for the word "TYPEWRITER" to be typed using one row.

Why you wake up early when you drink a lot of alcohol.

When you drink alcohol, your body does not want the alcohol to be in your body so it tries to get rid of it quickly. A way to get rid of it is urination. Alcohol mixes with the water in your system so when it is getting rid of the alcohol, it also removes a lot of the water too.

So you get dehydrated and your body wakes you up to remind to you to hydrate your body. When you are going to sleep after a night of drinking, get a big glass of water and put it on your night stand so when you wake up, the water is right there.

A way to avoid waking up early is drinking water while you are drinking alcohol. After every shot or beer you drink, drink a cup of water.


Friday, October 7, 2011

What is a trust fund?

A trust fund is basically a bank account with a babysitter.

Let's say you have three friends: Carl, Henry, and Mike.

-Carl's parents are rich and they give him a lot of money
-Henry's parents are poor so they don't give him any money
-Mike is a very honest and trustworthy guy. Everyone knows Mike would never steal from his friends.

Carl is a very nice person and wants to help Henry by giving him $60. But Carl is afraid that if he gives all of the money to Henry that Henry will blow it all on stuff he won't need like candy. What Henry needs it for is lunch money for the rest of the school year. Carl is a very lazy person because he never had to work for anything, so he doesn't want to slowly give Henry money by himself. So Carl gives the money to Mike to give it to Henry.

It is called TRUST because Carl TRUSTS Mike to give the money to Henry and not steal. The money is called the Trust Fund because money is the whole point of the trust. Everyone benefits from this trust fund. Carl gets to be a good person without any work, Henry gets the money he needs, and Mike benefits because he'll loan the money he hasn't given out yet to other kids and they'll pay him back with interest, which he gets to keep.

Why is gold a bad investment right now.

A lot of people are buying gold because they are going up in price. But one day people will stop buying gold. Then the sellers won't have anyone to sell it to so they will have to lower the price. These people who bought gold might have to lower the price below what they paid for it to get it to sell. Which means they would be losing money.

If you really want to invest in gold I suggest this book:
Rich Dad's Advisors: Guide to Investing In Gold and Silver: Protect Your Financial Future